What is Liver transplant ?

A liver transplant is an operation that replaces a patient’s diseased liver with a whole or partial healthy liver from another person.

What is Liver and what is Liver disease?

The liver is the largest solid organ inside the body; and is also considered a gland because among its many functions, it makes and secretes bile. The liver is located in the upper right portion of the abdomen protected by the rib cage. It has two main lobes that are made up of tiny lobules. The liver cells have two different sources of blood supply. The hepatic artery supplies oxygen rich blood that is pumped from the heart, while the portal vein supplies nutrients from the intestine and the spleen.

Normally, veins return blood from the body to the heart, but the portal vein allows chemicals from the digestive tract to enter the liver for “detoxification” and filtering prior to entering the general circulation. The portal vein also efficiently delivers the chemicals and proteins that liver cells need to produce the proteins, cholesterol, and glycogen required for normal body activities.

As part of its function, the liver makes bile, a fluid that contains among other substances, water, chemicals, and bile acids (made from stored cholesterol in the liver). Bile is stored in the gallbladder and when food enters the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine), bile is secreted into the duodenum, to aid in the digestion of food.

What is Liver Disease?

Liver disease is any disturbance of liver function that causes illness. The liver is responsible for many critical functions within the body and should it become diseased or injured, the loss of those functions can cause significant damage to the body. Liver disease is also referred to as hepatic disease.

Liver disease is a broad term that covers all the potential problems causes the liver to fail to perform its designated functions. Usually, more than 75% or three quarters of liver tissue needs to be affected before decrease in function occurs.

Liver Disease Symptoms

Common Symptoms of Liver Disease

Classic symptoms of liver disease include:

  • Nausea,
  • Vomiting,
  • Right upper quadrant abdominal pain, and
  • Jaundice (a yellow discoloration of the skin due to elevated bilirubin concentrations in the bloodstream).

Fatigue, weakness and weight loss may also be occur.

However, since there are a variety of liver diseases, the symptoms tend to be specific for that illness until late-stage liver disease and liver failure occurs.

The liver is the only organ in the body that can easily replace damaged cells, but if enough cells are lost, the liver may not be able to meet the needs of the body.

The liver can be considered a factory; and among its many functions include the following:

  • Production of bile that is required in the digestion of food, in particular fats;
  • Storing of the extra glucose or sugar in the body into stored glycogen in liver cells; and then converting it back into glucose when the body needs it for energy;
  • Production of blood clotting factors;
  • Production of amino acids (the building blocks for making proteins), including those used to help fight infection;
  • The processing and storage of iron necessary for red blood cell production;
  • Manufacture of cholesterol and other chemicals required for fat transport;
  • Conversion of waste products of body metabolism into urea that is excreted in the urine; and
  • Metabolizating medications into their active ingredient in the body.

What are the causes of liver disease?

The liver can be damaged in a variety of ways.

  • Cells can become inflamed (such as in hepatitis: hepar = liver + itis=inflammation).
  • Bile flow can be obstructed (such as in cholestasis: chole=bile + stasis=standing).
  • Blood flow to the liver may be compromised.
  • Liver tissue can be damaged by chemicals and minerals, or infiltrated by abnormal cells

Alcohol abuse

Alcohol abuse is the most common cause of liver disease in North America. Alcohol is directly toxic to liver cells and can cause liver inflammation, referred to as alcoholic hepatitis. In chronic alcohol abuse, fat accumulation


Cirrhosis is a late-stage of liver disease. Scarring of the liver and loss of functioning liver cells cause the liver to fail.

Cirrhosis is a complication of many liver diseases that is characterized by abnormal structure and function of the liver. The diseases that lead to cirrhosis do so because they injure and kill liver cells and the inflammation and repair that is associated with the dying liver cells causes scar tissue to form. The liver cells that do not die multiply in an attempt to replace the cells that have died. This results in clusters of newly-formed liver cells (regenerative nodules) within the scar tissue. There are many causes of cirrhosis; they include chemicals (such as alcohol, fat, and certain medications), viruses, toxic metals (such as iron and copper that accumulate in the liver as a result of genetic diseases), and autoimmune liver disease in which the body’s immune system attacks the liver.

Cirrhosis is a term that describes permanent scarring of the liver. In cirrhosis, the normal liver cells are replaced by scar tissue that cannot perform any liver function.

Acute liver failure may or may not be reversible, meaning that on occasion, there is a treatable cause and the liver may be able to recover and resume its normal functions.

Symptoms of Cirrhosis of the Liver

Individuals with cirrhosis may have few or no symptoms and signs of liver disease. Some of the symptoms may be nonspecific, that is, they don’t suggest that the liver is their cause. Some of the more common symptoms and signs of cirrhosis include:

  • Yellowing of the skin (jaundice) due to the accumulation of bilirubin in the blood
  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Loss of appetite
  • Itching
  • Easy bruising from decreased production of blood clotting factors by the diseased liver.

Individuals with cirrhosis also develop symptoms and signs from the complications of cirrhosis.

Drug-induced liver disease

Liver cells may become temporarily inflamed or permanently damaged by exposure to medications or drugs. Some medications or drugs require an overdose to cause liver injury while others may cause the damage even when taken in the appropriately prescribed dosage.

There are 4 phases of liver failure. Stage 4 is considered end stage.

Who gets a transplant?

When you are in stage 4, you have to experience a progression of blood tests that focus a score. It’s known as a MELD score. The score decides how wiped out you are contrasted with different patients in stage 4. It extends from 6 – 42, 6 being the slightest debilitated and 42 being the most wiped out. Most transplants are carried out on individuals who’s scores are around 26.

  1. In the event that you don’t have one, get a gastrointeroligist. He will work with you to keep you as solid and utilitarian as would be prudent.
  2. You needn’t bother with a referral from a specialist to get evaluated for a transplant. So begin by checking with nearby healing centers that offer liver transplant in India projects.
  3. In the event that your liver illness is an aftereffect of liquor addiction then you have to be liquor free for no less than 6 months and in a system like AA for a year (distinctive clinics may have diverse prerequisites).
  4. When you are prepared – call and make a meeting with the transplant staff.
  5. The transplant facilitators will set everything up for you:

– get you support through your protection transporter

– test you to acquire your MELD score

-set up a meeting with a transplant specialist who will talk with you and after that make a proposal to the transplant board.

You could be dismisses. A few healing facilities may not be set up to handle some higher danger patients. It requires some investment and determination however our involvement with Westchester Medical Center has been truly positive, the staff is magnificent and empathetic and we are directing you at all times!